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The fact that waves of colds and influenza infections occur during the colder months in particular is largely dependent on a number of seasonal factors that affect the indoor climate. These are re-lated to the air temperature, as well as a drop in relative humidity.
Even in summer, however, the air-conditioning units used for cooling can cause the air circulating in these interior spaces to dry out -- making life much easier for viral aerosols.
Dry indoor air doesn’t simply occur on its own but results from the interaction of seasonal factors, building properties and basic physics. Often, dry air is literally ‘home-made’.
If a building were to be hermetically sealed off from the outside world, the absolute humidity insi-de would be constant and unchanging. However, relative humidity is the key factor for properly assessing the humidity situation. Relative humidity describes the saturation percentage of air with water vapour and is affected by the air temperature.
Warm air can hold a greater amount of water than cold air. Air will always attempt to absorb wa- ter in the form of water vapour until it reaches maximum saturation. This is why relative humidity falls when air is heated, although the absolute humidity remains the same.
When indoor air is heated and windows are then opened or fresh air is brought in by a mechanical system, this air will start to dry out. The colder the outside air, the lower its capacity to absorb water and the drier it becomes.
If this cold, dry outside air enters the building, relative humidity will drop rapidly as this air is heated further. The air then tries to restore the equilibrium: if no humidification systems are installed, the air will try to become saturated by drawing moisture from any materials, structures and huma-n bodies present.
Before a humidification system is installed, it is important to check the air change rates and temperatures. The proportion of fresh air indoors should be reduced to the minimum necessary, espe- cially in winter.
Windows that are permanently open and excessively high air exchange rates should be avoided in order to prevent the air drying out. Indoor spaces should also not be overheated: an ideal tem-perature here is between 20 and 22 °C.